It the branch of chemistry in Which We study the structure, composition, and chemical reactions Of substances found in living organisms. It Covers all Chemical process:s taking place in living organisms, such as synthesis and metabolism of biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Biochemistry emerged as a separate discipline when scientists began to study how living things obtain energy from food or how the fundamental biological changes occur during a disease. Examples of applications of biochemistry are in the fields of medicine, food science, and agriculture, etc.
branch of chemistry that deals with the manufacturing of chemical compounds on a commercial scale, is éalled industrial chemistry. It deals with the production of basic chemicals such as oxygen, chlorine, ammonia, caustic soda, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid. These chemicals provide the raw materials for many other industries such as fertilizers, soap, textiles, agricultural products, paints, and paper, etc.
Nuclear Chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals With the radioactivity, nuclear processes and properties. It also includes the study of the chemical effects resulting from the absorption of radiation within animals, plants, and other materials. It has large applications in medical treatment (radiotherapy), preservation of food and generation of electrical power through nuclear reactors, etc. 1.1.7 Environmental Chemistry It is the branch of chemistry in which we study about components of the environment and the effects of human activi!ies on the environment.
It is related to other departments like biology, geology, ecology, soil, and water. The knowledge of chemical processes taking place in the environment is necessary for its improvement and protection against pollution.
Analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with separation and analysis of a sample to identify its components. The separation is carried out before qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative study provides the identity of a SUbstance (composition of chemical species). On the other hand, the quantitative analysis determines the amount of each component present in the sample.
The knowledge that provides an understanding of this world and how it works is science. Structure, properties, and reactions of the matter are called chemistry. It deals with every aspect of our life. The development of science and technology has provided us with a lot of facilities in daily life. Imagine the role and importance of petrochemical products — medicines and drugs, soap, detergents, paper, plastics, paints and pigments, insecticides, pesticides which all are the fruit of the efforts of chemists. The development of the chemical industry has also generated toxic wastes, contaminated water and polluted air around us. On the other hand, chemistry also provides knowledge and techniques to improve our health and environment and to explore and to conserve the natural resources. In this chapter, we will study different branches of chemistry, basic definitions, and concepts of chemistry.
BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY
It is a fact that we live in a world of chemicals. dioxide for their survival. day and night. Chemistry is divided into the following main branches: physical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, industrial chemistry, nuclear chemistry, environmental chemistry, and analytical chemistry.
Physical Chemistry is defined as the branch of chemistry that deals with the relationship between the composition and physical properties of matter along with the changes in them. The features such as the structure of atoms or formation of molecules, the behavior of gases, liquids and solids and the study of the effect Of temperature or radiation on matter, all are studied under this branch
Organic Chemistry is the study of covalent compounds of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives. Organic chemists determine the structure and properties of these naturally occurring as well as synthesized compounds. Of this branch covers petroleum, petrochemicals and pharmaceutical industries.
Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry deals with the study of all elements and their compounds except those of mixtures of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry such as glass, cement, ceramics, and metallurgy (extraction of metals from ores).